The Simplest Things That Scientists Still Can't Explain

The Simplest Things That Scientists Still Can't Explain

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Perhaps the most mind-boggling thing that scientists still don't understand is just how bicycles work. If you thought that it was because of the gyroscopic motion of the wheels, that theory was disproven in the 1970s. Scientists really aren't sure why bicycles are able to be so stable when ridden. Ever since the gyroscopic theory was disproven, scientists shifted their thinking to something called the caster effect. They thought that the stability of a bicycle came from the angle at which the front wheel made contact with the ground relative to the frame. However, that theory was proven false in 2011 by researchers at Cornell. The mechanics behind the machine of bicycles can be understood rather simply, whether it be gear ratios or friction. However, when it comes down to the actual mechanism that makes bikes stable, scientists aren't really sure.

Dark Matter and Dark Energy

All of the matter that we consider normal, i.e. planets, stars, etc., only account for 4.9 percent of the total matter and energy observed in the universe. 26.8 percent of matter and energy is considered dark. Scientists reached this conclusion due to the fact that on a universal scale, matter is moving faster than it should throughout our universe. We understand that dark matter and dark energy must exist given what we observe in the universe, but scientists aren't sure what these particles actually are. There is extensive research going into expanding the search for dark matter particles since they make up most of the mass of the universe.

Dark energy presents another problem. The universe is expanding at an accelerated rate. The universe has always been expanding since the beginning, but only until 5 or so billion years ago, that rate was in decline. Now, the universe is accelerating outwards, and scientists aren't sure where this energy is coming from. There are plenty of models and theories about this, but none conclusive.

How Gravity Works

[Image Source: Pixabay]

Gravity exists, we understand it pretty well. Newton did a great job discovering the force and explaining its principles. However, of the four forces holding the universe together – strong, weak, electromagnetic, and gravity – scientists aren't really sure how gravity is such a weak force but also so strong. Gravity never disappears throughout the universe, yet it is the weakest of all of the four forces. Each of the four main forces in the universe have their own respective particles that ultimately control each one, except for gravity. Hypothetically speaking, there exists a particle called the graviton, but scientists haven't found it yet. The other breakdown in our understanding of gravity is that it doesn'twork on a quantum or atomic scale. This is one of the biggest reasons why quantum research and physical research can rarely ever collude.

Gravity can be modeled, the force can be calculated, but since we haven't found a graviton particle yet, we don't really fully understand it. If researchers conclude that there doesn't exist a particle associated with gravity, then much of the science around forces breaks down. Some researchers believe they have found a graviton, but nothing is universally agreed upon yet.

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